The Baseline Technology Stack - Part 1.

It is surreal, the Covid-19 pandemic has reached pretty much every place on this planet. In some countries we're seeing encouraging signs of declining daily numbers. Others are still in front of their peak. So it is still odd to write about technology and business. To you, dear reader, I hope you are safe and that soon you'll be back to a more "normal" life. For now, let me hopefully distract you with some technical deep dive: In the last post [], I shared some of the thinking which went into getting the idea for Baseline. I also talked about some of the fundamental ideas around privacy and security which are at the core of Baseline and dear to my heart. After I went through the initial exercise of defining a minimal delightful product, I started thinking about the technology stack. And, wow, here is another area where you have a pretty much infinite number of options. Luckily, they were somewhat limited by my skills, professional experience and my desire to launch fast.

A stack to help you move fast

You can move fast in a whole bunch of different ways. There is moving fast, by deferring building your product entirely and doing only research and customer interviews. There is moving fast, by building a functional prototype, maybe a simple landing page. You do this to get a sense of a potential market. Some call this market validation. I think: validation means you have a paying customer. So you need to create some value. Even if it is a tiny bit of value. A potential customer who says they like an idea is not the same as a paying customer.

None of these ways made sense to me.

On top of this, I have experienced the pain Baseline is trying to solve first hand and I talked to a few folks who seemed to at least agree that the problems exist. I needed to find a technical stack that allowed me build a minimal delightful version of Baseline fast. But how?

Here are three principles that helped me come up with my approach and helped me to move quickly.

  1. Customer data is sacred

I discussed this in the previous post [], so I won't go into more depth here.

  1. Automate

When building an online service, you can get very far without automating your processes. You can provision your infrastructure by just clicking the right buttons in the AWS console (or GCP, or some other provider). You can wait with the automation of running tests and run them manually every once in a while. Heck, you might skip writing tests all-together. You can pass on automated deployments and manually pull new releases onto your host. And if a deployment fails, you ssh into the host(s) and fiddle around until it works again.

While I might have been able to move fast without automation initially, I decided that choosing to wait with this would ultimately cost a lot of time. Not investing into automating will also turn out to be very prone to errors. So, automation, even in the early days was something I thought was important.

  1. Use tools where they make your life simpler.

When building online services you can end up using a million tools to make your project happen. Start with service orchestration like Kubernetes, head over to creating a complete microservice architecture, or to API abstractions like GraphQL, client-side build tools, CSS frameworks, and finally JavaScript libraries and frameworks - and check this, I skipped over a lot of possible choices. You can end up with a fairly complex stack and you'll spend a lot of time debugging, maintaining and operating this stack.

Then there is also the temptation of using fancy new tech for your new service. Why not make this new service entirely serverless, move to a new serverless platform or try out a new client-side architecture?

I recommend: Unless you feel quite familiar with the technology, maybe don't use it for now. It is OK not to be an expert in everything and not use what is the new big thing. Use the stack you are familiar with and dive into the next cool thing when you have some time at hand and maybe one day it'll make it into your service.

So you wonder about the stack?

Let's do this bottoms up and start with:


First of all, where will I host Baseline? I chose AWS. Why? I know AWS fairly well and I trust AWS when it comes to operational excellence and security. While there are a ton of AWS services I have never used before, I feel comfortable building on top of it. And AWS is here to stay and in the event of Baseline growing, AWS supports everything I could think of. Next up:

Managing infrastructure

Remember how automation was important to me? You can provision everything manually, or you can choose tools like CloudFormation or Terraform. It will happen that you want to tear down your stack and recreate it. Especially in the beginning. I chose the AWS CDK [], which allows you to define infrastructure as code. Amazing! Here an example of how you set up a Route53 zone and an ACM certificate: = new PublicHostedZone(this, ${stackName}-hosted-zone, { zoneName });

this.certificate = new DnsValidatedCertificate(this, ${stackName}-certificate, { domainName: certificateDomainName, subjectAlternativeNames: [certificateAlternativeDomainName], hostedZone:, });

Sometime last year I dove into this and set up a complete blueprint which would automatically provision the following:


A Route53 zone with an automatically created free certificate through ACM (AWS Certificate Manager) so that you can serve traffic over SSL. See the example above.

Shared Infrastructure:

Shared components such a load-balancer and the VPC.

Web Service:

A CI/CD pipeline for a web service and static assets served via a CloudFront distribution. The pipeline includes a staging and a production environment. Traffic is served via SSL (https://) and traffic going over HTTP is redirected to HTTPS.

Api Service:

A CI/CD pipeline for an api service (control plane). The pipeline includes a staging and a production environment. Traffic is served via SSL (https://) and traffic going over HTTP is redirected to HTTPS.

Since I had this blueprint pretty much ready to go, it took only a very short amount of time to get the entire service infrastructure up and running. I open-sourced the blueprint on GitHub in case you'd like to copy this pattern or want to dive into the CDK yourself: Infrastructure bootstrapping for AWS, powered by AWS CDK. []


The Blueprint I mentioned above, set up an autoscaling group running EC2 instances. So the default choice for the application compute infrastructure would have been EC2. But before committing to EC2 I took a little detour:

Lambda / Serverless:

I love Lambda and thought that it actually would be a perfect candidate for running my simple API service. My service is stateless, and eventually could even turn into a workflow with Step Functions. As a bonus: I would also easily fit into the free tier. I dove in, reviewed API Gateway (you need this when using Lambda), then wondered about how I could test locally and had a look at the state of AWS SAM []. I thought about authentication/authorization and noticed that I started procrastinating quite a bit. I wondered about where to host the landing page, whether I could just make it a static page. I started reviewing serverless frameworks and saw myself become an expert in this, without shipping Baseline. So I paused. And decided to look somewhere else.

Note: I still think serverless is a really good tool for the Baseline use case. I will revisit my choices here again in the future. Once there are a few paying customers.


Should I use Kubernetes, or a container orchestration like ECS? I thought that this was overkill in my case. Since I was able to provision my entire infrastructure with a load balancer, autoscaling, etc. through the CDK, I didn't see the benefit of Kubernetes or ECS - next to running the service in a container - which I could then use to run locally as well. It is not like I needed to pack a ton of containers onto a lot of hardware I had running idle and I don't have a team with whom I'd like to share my dev stack. So I passed on this as well.

Barebone EC2:

So here we are, back to basics. Running my API and Webservice on a barebone EC2 instance 😱. I ended up choosing EC2 as my compute, because this was something I was very familiar with. I could develop / test Baseline locally, commit to GitHub and then automatically deploy to one or more EC2 instances. I could even roll back faulty deployments. Simple.

Keeping cost down

My current setup might not be the most cost-efficient way of running infrastructure but it works very well for me. It is not very efficient because I am underutilizing many of the services I am paying for.

But wait, I found a (temporary) solution for managing cost as well. Just read on 😊

Running the stack I described above, does not fit into the AWS free tier. And frankly, it is not nice to spend money on infrastructure while the service doesn't make any money yet. AWS Activate [] to the rescue. I applied for the Founders program and 7 days later USD 1000,- of credits appeared in my account. This would provide enough runway for operating the infrastructure to prove that Baseline can be a viable business. Win!

So here we are, I have a solid infrastructure setup, CI/CD, I figured out a way to manage operational cost, I could now push code to GitHub, run automated tests and automatically deploy the artifacts. I could even scale the platform. And I can operate this for a while without paying a dime. But I was not done yet. The world of front-end / client-side was still waiting with its infinite amount of libraries/frameworks and build tools.

I will report on this in the next post 😅

Follow me on Twitter [] if you are curious about the Baseline journey.  I'd love to hear what your stack of choice is for launching a new service, please share as a reply to this tweet []. And go checkout Baseline by requesting an invite here [].

Until soon, stay safe, and happy baselining!

Disclaimer 1: Oh! And as I proofread this post, I notice, I don't have a database! Yes! I don't have a database. No need to worry about backups, migrations, and all the dance around databases 🎉.

Disclaimer 2: Ultimately, do what works for you. Be careful of getting distracted by things which don't help you move to your goal and be careful of voices who tell you there is one right way. The chance is high that you might pick a completely different stack and launch a successful service.

That is the beauty of building things.